Introduction to OpenJDK and IcedTea

IcedTea provides a build harness for the OpenJDK package, Oracle's open-sourced Java development environment. In order to provide a completely free runtime environment, similar to Oracle's closed distribution, the IcedTea build harness also provides free, and arguably better versions of parts of the JDK which have not been open-sourced to date. OpenJDK is useful for developing Java programs and provides a complete runtime environment to run Java programs.

This package is known to build and work properly using an LFS-7.6 platform.



The browser plugin and webstart implementation have been split off into a separate project. To provide a complete implementation, you will need to later install IcedTea-Web-1.5.1.

OpenJDK is GPL'd code, however, it should be explained that there has been a special exception made for non-free projects to use these classes in their proprietary products. In similar fashion to the LGPL, which allows non-free programs to link to libraries provided by free software, the GNU General Public License, version 2, with the Classpath Exception allows third party programs to use classes provided by free software without the requirement that the third party software also be free. As with the LGPL, any modifications made to the free software portions of a third party application, must also be made freely available.



The IcedTea build environment includes a very thorough, open source test suite titled JTreg. JTreg is intended to test the just built JDK for reasonable compatibility with the closed Oracle JDK. However, in order for an independent implementation to claim compatibility, including the Oracle sponsored OpenJDK project, it must pass a closed JCK/TCK test suite. No claims of compatibility, even partial compatibility, may be made without passing an approved test suite.

Oracle does provide free community access, on a case by case basis, to a closed toolkit to ensure 100% compatibility with its proprietary JDK. The binary version provided here has not been tested against the TCK. Any version that is built using the instructions given, cannot claim to be compatible with the proprietary JDK, without the user applying for, and completing the compatibility tests themselves.

With that in mind, the binaries produced using this build method are regularly tested against the TCK by the members listed on the site above. In addition to the community license above, an educational, non-commercial license for the TCK can be obtained from here.

Source Package Information

The following may be downladed separately or be done as a part of the make process. For convenience the BLFS editors have made the files available in an LFS website. The files are not distributed with versions, but extracted from the OpenJDK version control system at specified (tagged) points.

Additional Downloads

Required Patches

Required JAR

Optional package (to obtain an icon for the openjdk-7-policytool.desktop file)

OpenJDK Dependencies

Required Dependencies

An existing binary ( Java- or an earlier built version of this package), alsa-lib-1.0.28, apache-ant-1.9.4, Certificate Authority Certificates, cpio-2.11, Cups-1.7.5, GTK+-2.24.24, giflib-5.1.0, UnZip-6.0, Wget-1.15, Which-2.20, Xorg Libraries, and Zip-3.0



libxslt-1.1.28, lsb_release-1.4, Mercurial-3.1.1, MIT Kerberos V5-1.12.2, and Xorg-Server-1.16.0 (for the tests)

User Notes:

Installation of OpenJDK



The source build of OpenJDK requires apache-ant-1.9.4. You'll need to build that first to satisfy the circular dependency, and return to this section to continue building OpenJDK.

Unlike other packages in BLFS, the OpenJDK source packages are distributed in multiple downloads. Since the IcedTea build harness will be used to build OpenJDK, begin by extracting the IcedTea package and changing into the extracted directory.

The IcedTea OpenJDK distribution requires that js.jar (from the Rhino package) be in place in order to provide a java-script implementation for the free JDK. If you have not installed the js.jar file in another way, do so with the following commands as the root user:

unzip ../             &&
install -v -d -m755 /usr/share/java &&
install -v -m755 rhino1_7R4/*.jar /usr/share/java

As mentioned previously, OpenJDK is composed of several individual projects of the proprietary JDK that have been relicensed under an open source license. If you have already downloaded all of the individual components, place them into the source tree with the following commands:

cp -v ../corba.tar.bz2     . &&
cp -v ../hotspot.tar.bz2   . &&
cp -v ../jaxp.tar.bz2      . &&
cp -v ../jaxws.tar.bz2     . &&
cp -v ../jdk.tar.bz2       . &&
cp -v ../langtools.tar.bz2 . &&
cp -v ../openjdk.tar.bz2   .

Apply a patch to generate a valid cacerts file using the system CA certificates:

patch -Np1 -i ../icedtea-2.5.2-add_cacerts-1.patch

Apply a patch to replace fixed paths with ones appropriate for BLFS:

patch -Np1 -i ../icedtea-2.5.2-fixed_paths-1.patch

Apply a patch to adapt the code to the new giflib API:

patch -Np1 -i ../icedtea-2.5.2-fix_new_giflib-1.patch

Apply a patch to exclude known broken tests from the test suite:

patch -Np1 -i ../icedtea-2.5.2-fix_tests-1.patch


Before proceeding, you should ensure that your environment is properly set for building OpenJDK. First, review the content of the ANT_HOME variable. Second, the PATH variable should contain the paths to the java and ant executables. Last, the CLASSPATH variable should be set as explained on the Java- and JUnit-4.11 pages.

Configure and build the package with the following commands (--with-pkgversion and --with-version-suffix values can be modified to fit user preferences):

unset JAVA_HOME                                               &&
./                                                  &&
./configure --with-jdk-home=/opt/OpenJDK-         \
            --with-version-suffix=BLFS                        \
            --enable-nss                                      \
            --disable-system-kerberos                         \
            --with-parallel-jobs                              &&


If you have not installed the tarballs specified above, they will be automatically downloaded here.

To test the results, issue: make jtregcheck. The included version of jtreg is old, and the test suite is also very dependent on the host system and the environment that it is run in. You should expect to see anywhere between 40 and 100 failures in jdk with up to 10 errors in the tests themselves. The majority of the 6000+ tests should pass. The reason for the greatly varying results is due to how stringent the testing environment must be. Varying architectures, different versions of dependent libraries, unexpected X Window environment and window managers, the CA certificates used to generate the cacerts file, and even any user input or power management or screen saver interruptions during the testing can lead to various failures. While the known broken tests have been removed, with the fix_tests patch above, the graphics tests failures cannot be pre-determined (short of removing them all). The best bet for the minimal number of failures is to run the test suite in a framebuffer on a different screen (Xvfb). Even still, disk I/O can cause failures.

export DISPLAY=:20     &&
Xvfb :20 -screen 0 1x1x24 -ac&
echo $!>     &&
make -k jtregcheck     &&
kill -9 `cat` &&
unset DISPLAY          &&
rm -f

Install the package with the following commands as the root user:

chmod 0644   &&
cp -R /opt/OpenJDK- &&
chown -R root:root /opt/OpenJDK-

If desired, you may install a .desktop file corresponding to an entry in a desktop menu for policytool. First, you need to obtain an icon from IcedTea-Web-1.5.1:

tar -xf ../icedtea-web-1.5.1.tar.gz  \
        icedtea-web-1.5.1/javaws.png \

Now, as root user:

mkdir -pv /usr/share/applications &&

cat > /usr/share/applications/openjdk-7-policytool.desktop << "EOF" &&
[Desktop Entry]
Name=OpenJDK Java 7 Policy Tool
Name[pt_BR]=OpenJDK Java 7 - Ferramenta de Política
Comment=OpenJDK Java 7 Policy Tool
Comment[pt_BR]=OpenJDK Java 7 - Ferramenta de Política

install -v -Dm0644 javaws.png /usr/share/pixmaps/javaws.png

The choice of pt_BR is just an example. You can add any translation by adding lines corresponding to your locale, e.g. for fr_FR, “Name[fr_FR]=” and “Comment[fr_FR]=” with the appropriate text as values.

Command Explanations

./ This command forces rebuilding of auto-generated files to account for new options added to configure.

--with-jdk-home: This switch provides the location of the temporary JDK.

--with-pkgversion: This switch can be used to modify the version string in addition to "IcedTea".

--with-version-suffix: This switch appends the given text to the JDK version string.

--enable-nss: Enable inclusion of NSS security provider.

--disable-system-kerberos: Remove this switch, if MIT Kerberos V5-1.12.2 is installed.

--with-parallel-jobs: Allows to set the number of jobs for make equal to the number of processors plus one. Note that the default is 2 if this option is not specified. You have to explicitely set --with-parallel-jobs=1 to disable parallel jobs. The SBU given above are with parallel jobs disabled.

chmod -v 0644 Fix permissions in a generated file so all users can access it.

Configuring OpenJDK

Configuration Information

There are now two OpenJDK SDKs installed in /opt. You should decide on which one you would like to use as the default. For example if you decide to use the precompiled OpenJDK, do the following as the root user:

ln -v -nsf OpenJDK- /opt/jdk

The information below assumes your system is set up using the instructions found in “The Bash Shell Startup Files”. You may need to extract the relevant information below and incorporate it into your system's startup files if your system is set up differently.

Add the following shell startup file to the /etc/profile.d directory with the following commands as the root user:

cat > /etc/profile.d/ << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/profile.d/

# Set JAVA_HOME directory

# Set ANT_HOME directory

# Adjust PATH
pathappend $JAVA_HOME/bin PATH
pathappend $ANT_HOME/bin PATH

# Copy jar files to, or create symlinks in this directory


pathprepend . CLASSPATH

for dir in `find ${AUTO_CLASSPATH_DIR} -type d 2>/dev/null`; do
    pathappend $dir CLASSPATH

for jar in `find ${AUTO_CLASSPATH_DIR} -name "*.jar" 2>/dev/null`; do
    pathappend $jar CLASSPATH

unset AUTO_CLASSPATH_DIR dir jar

# End /etc/profile.d/

Finally, add the man pages to man_db's configuration. As the root user:

cat >> /etc/profile.d/ << "EOF" &&
# Begin Java addition
pathappend /opt/jdk/man       MANPATH
# End Java addition

cat >> /etc/man_db.conf << "EOF" &&
# Begin Java addition
MANDATORY_MANPATH     /opt/jdk/man
MANPATH_MAP           /opt/jdk/bin     /opt/jdk/man
MANDB_MAP             /opt/jdk/man     /var/cache/man/jdk
# End Java addition

mandb -c /opt/jdk/man

To test if the man pages are correctly installed, issue source /etc/profile and man java to display the respective man page.

Install or update the JRE Certificate Authority Certificates (cacerts) file

Use the following procedure to check if the cacerts file was successfully installed during the OpenJDK build. Also, if the Certificate Authority Certificates have been updated, the following instructions will generate a new JRE cacerts file. First, check if the cacerts have been successfully installed:

cd /opt/jdk
bin/keytool -list -keystore jre/lib/security/cacerts

At the prompt "Enter keystore password:", press the "Enter" key if there is no keystore password defined. If the cacerts were installed correctly, you will see a list of the certificates with related information for each one. If not, you need to manually install them. First, generate the mkcacerts script as the root user:

cat > /opt/jdk/bin/mkcacerts << "EOF"
# Simple script to extract x509 certificates and create a JRE cacerts file.

function get_args()
        if test -z "${1}" ; then
            exit 1

        while test -n "${1}" ; do
            case "${1}" in
                -f | --cafile)
                    check_arg $1 $2
                    shift 2
                -d | --cadir)
                    check_arg $1 $2
                    shift 2
                -o | --outfile)
                    check_arg $1 $2
                    shift 2
                -k | --keytool)
                    check_arg $1 $2
                    shift 2
                -s | --openssl)
                    check_arg $1 $2
                    shift 2
                -h | --help)
                    exit 0
                    exit 1

function check_arg()
        echo "${2}" | grep -v "^-" > /dev/null
        if [ -z "$?" -o ! -n "$2" ]; then
            echo "Error:  $1 requires a valid argument."
            exit 1

# The date binary is not reliable on 32bit systems for dates after 2038
function mydate()
        local y=$( echo $1 | cut -d" " -f4 )
        local M=$( echo $1 | cut -d" " -f1 )
        local d=$( echo $1 | cut -d" " -f2 )
        local m

        if [ ${d} -lt 10 ]; then d="0${d}"; fi

        case $M in
            Jan) m="01";;
            Feb) m="02";;
            Mar) m="03";;
            Apr) m="04";;
            May) m="05";;
            Jun) m="06";;
            Jul) m="07";;
            Aug) m="08";;
            Sep) m="09";;
            Oct) m="10";;
            Nov) m="11";;
            Dec) m="12";;


function showhelp()
        echo "`basename ${0}` creates a valid cacerts file for use with IcedTea."
        echo ""
        echo "        -f  --cafile     The path to a file containing PEM"
        echo "                         formated CA certificates. May not be"
        echo "                         used with -d/--cadir."
        echo ""
        echo "        -d  --cadir      The path to a directory of PEM formatted"
        echo "                         CA certificates. May not be used with"
        echo "                         -f/--cafile."
        echo ""
        echo "        -o  --outfile    The path to the output file."
        echo ""
        echo "        -k  --keytool    The path to the java keytool utility."
        echo ""
        echo "        -s  --openssl    The path to the openssl utility."
        echo ""
        echo "        -h  --help       Show this help message and exit."
        echo ""
        echo ""

# Initialize empty variables so that the shell does not pollute the script
today=$( date +%Y%m%d )

# Process command line arguments
get_args ${@}

# Handle common errors
if test "${CAFILE}x" == "x" -a "${CADIR}x" == "x" ; then
    echo "ERROR!  You must provide an x509 certificate store!"
    echo "\'$(basename ${0}) --help\' for more info."
    echo ""
    exit 1

if test "${CAFILE}x" != "x" -a "${CADIR}x" != "x" ; then
    echo "ERROR!  You cannot provide two x509 certificate stores!"
    echo "\'$(basename ${0}) --help\' for more info."
    echo ""
    exit 1

if test "${KEYTOOL}x" == "x" ; then
    echo "ERROR!  You must provide a valid keytool program!"
    echo "\'$(basename ${0}) --help\' for more info."
    echo ""
    exit 1

if test "${OPENSSL}x" == "x" ; then
    echo "ERROR!  You must provide a valid path to openssl!"
    echo "\'$(basename ${0}) --help\' for more info."
    echo ""
    exit 1

if test "${OUTFILE}x" == "x" ; then
    echo "ERROR!  You must provide a valid output file!"
    echo "\'$(basename ${0}) --help\' for more info."
    echo ""
    exit 1

# Get on with the work

# If using a CAFILE, split it into individual files in a temp directory
if test "${CAFILE}x" != "x" ; then
    TEMPDIR=`mktemp -d`

    # Get a list of staring lines for each cert
    CERTLIST=`grep -n "^-----BEGIN" "${CAFILE}" | cut -d ":" -f 1`

    # Get a list of ending lines for each cert
    ENDCERTLIST=`grep -n "^-----END" "${CAFILE}" | cut -d ":" -f 1`

    # Start a loop
    for certbegin in `echo "${CERTLIST}"` ; do
        for certend in `echo "${ENDCERTLIST}"` ; do
            if test "${certend}" -gt "${certbegin}"; then
        sed -n "${certbegin},${certend}p" "${CAFILE}" > "${CADIR}/${certbegin}.pem"
        keyhash=`${OPENSSL} x509 -noout -in "${CADIR}/${certbegin}.pem" -hash`
        echo "Generated PEM file with hash:  ${keyhash}."

# Write the output file
for cert in `find "${CADIR}" -type f -name "*.pem" -o -name "*.crt"`

    # Make sure the certificate date is valid...
    date=$( ${OPENSSL} x509 -enddate -in "${cert}" -noout | sed 's/^notAfter=//' )
    mydate "${date}"
    if test "${certdate}" -lt "${today}" ; then
        echo "${cert} expired on ${certdate}! Skipping..."
        unset date certdate
    unset date certdate
    ls "${cert}"
    certbegin=`grep -n "^-----BEGIN" "${cert}" | cut -d ":" -f 1`
    certend=`grep -n "^-----END" "${cert}" | cut -d ":" -f 1`
    sed -n "${certbegin},${certend}p" "${cert}" > "${tempfile}"
    echo yes | env LC_ALL=C "${KEYTOOL}" -import                     \
                                         -alias `basename "${cert}"` \
                                         -keystore "${OUTFILE}"      \
                                         -storepass 'changeit'       \
                                         -file "${tempfile}"
    rm "${tempfile}"

if test "${TEMPDIR}x" != "x" ; then
    rm -rf "${TEMPDIR}"
exit 0

chmod -c 0755 /opt/jdk/bin/mkcacerts


Doing a very large copy/paste directly to a terminal may result in a corrupted file. Copying to an editor may overcome this issue.

If you need to generate a cacerts file, and there is already one in /opt/jdk/jre/lib/security, it is better to make a backup. Then, you can create a new one, as the root user:

/opt/jdk/bin/mkcacerts            \
        -d "/etc/ssl/certs/"      \
        -k "/opt/jdk/bin/keytool" \
        -s "/usr/bin/openssl"     \
        -o "/opt/jdk/jre/lib/security/cacerts"


Installed Programs: appletviewer, apt, extcheck, idlj, jar, jarsigner, java, javac, javadoc, javah, javap, java-rmi.cgi, jcmd, jconsole, jdb, jhat, jinfo, jmap, jps, jrunscript, jsadebugd, jstack, jstat, jstatd, keytool, mkcacerts, native2ascii, orbd, pack200, policytool, rmic, rmid, rmiregistry, schemagen, serialver, servertool, tnameserv, unpack200, wsgen, wsimport, and xjc
Installed Libraries: /opt/OpenJDK-*, and /opt/OpenJDK-*
Installed Directory: /opt/OpenJDK-

Short Descriptions


allows you to run applets outside of a web browser.


is an annotation processing tool.


checks a specified jar file for title and version conflicts with any extensions installed in the OpenJDK software.


generates Java bindings from a given IDL file.


combines multiple files into a single jar archive.


signs jar files and verifies the signatures and integrity of a signed jar file.


launches a Java application by starting a Java runtime environment, loading a specified class and invoking its main method.


reads class and interface definitions, written in the Java programming language, and compiles them into bytecode class files.


parses the declarations and documentation comments in a set of Java source files and produces a corresponding set of HTML pages describing the classes, interfaces,constructors, methods, and fields.


generates C header and source files that are needed to implement native methods.


disassembles a Java class file.


is the Java RMI client.


is a utility to send diagnostic command requests to a running Java Virtual Machine.


is a graphical console tool to monitor and manage both local and remote Java applications and virtual machines.


is a simple command-line debugger for Java classes.


parses a java heap dump file and allows viewing in a web browser.


prints Java configuration information for a given Java process, core file, or a remote debug server.


prints shared object memory maps or heap memory details of a given process, core file, or a remote debug server.


lists the instrumented JVMs on the target system.


is a command line script shell.


attaches to a Java process or core file and acts as a debug server.


prints Java stack traces of Java threads for a given Java process, core file, or a remote debug server.


displays performance statistics for an instrumented JVM.


is an RMI server application that monitors for the creation and termination of instrumented JVMs.


is a key and certificate management utility.


is a simple script to extract x509 certificates and create a JRE cacerts file using keytool.


converts files that contain non-supported character encoding into files containing Latin-1 or Unicode-encoded characters.


is used to enable clients to transparently locate and invoke persistent objects on servers in the CORBA environment.


is a Java application that transforms a jar file into a compressed pack200 file using the Java gzip compressor.


creates and manages a policy file graphically.


generates stub and skeleton class files for remote objects from the names of compiled Java classes that contain remote object implementations.


starts the activation system daemon.


creates and starts a remote object registry on the specified port on the current host.


is a Java XML binding schema generator.


returns the serialVersionUID for one or more classes in a form suitable for copying into an evolving class.


provides an ease-of-use interface for application programmers to register, unregister, startup and shutdown a server.


starts the Java IDL name server.


is a native implementation that transforms a packed file produced by pack200 into a jar file.


generates JAX-WS portable artifacts used in JAX-WS web services.


generates JAX-WS portable artifacts.


is a Java XML binding compiler.

Last updated on 2014-09-21 01:03:52 -0700