5.7. Adjusting the Toolchain

Now that the temporary C libraries have been installed, all tools compiled in the rest of this chapter should be linked against these libraries. In order to accomplish this, the linker and the compiler's specs file need to be adjusted.

The linker, adjusted at the end of the first pass of Binutils, needs to be renamed so that it can be properly found and used. First, backup the original linker, then replace it with the adjusted linker. We'll also create a link to its counterpart in /tools/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/bin:

mv -v /tools/bin/{ld,ld-old}
mv -v /tools/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/bin/{ld,ld-old}
mv -v /tools/bin/{ld-new,ld}
ln -sv /tools/bin/ld /tools/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/bin/ld

From this point onwards, everything will link only against the libraries in /tools/lib.

The next task is to point GCC to the new dynamic linker. This is done by dumping GCC's “specs” file to a location where GCC will look for it by default. A simple sed substitution then alters the dynamic linker that GCC will use.

For the sake of accuracy, it is recommended to use a copy-and-paste method when issuing the following command. Be sure to visually inspect the specs file and verify that all occurrences of “/lib/ld-linux.so.2” have been replaced with “/tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2”:



If working on a platform where the name of the dynamic linker is something other than ld-linux.so.2, replace “ld-linux.so.2” with the name of the platform's dynamic linker in the following commands. Refer to Section 5.2, “Toolchain Technical Notes,” if necessary.

gcc -dumpspecs | sed 's@^/lib/ld-linux.so.2@/tools&@g' \
  > `dirname $(gcc -print-libgcc-file-name)`/specs

During the build process, GCC runs a script (fixincludes) that scans the system for header files that may need to be fixed (they might contain syntax errors, for example), and installs the fixed versions in a private include directory. There is a possibility that, as a result of this process, some header files from the host system have found their way into GCC's private include directory. As the rest of this chapter only requires the headers from GCC and Glibc, which have both been installed at this point, any “fixed” headers can safely be removed. This helps to avoid any host headers polluting the build environment. Run the following commands to remove the header files in GCC's private include directory (you may find it easier to copy and paste these commands, rather than typing them by hand, due to their length):

GCC_INCLUDEDIR=`dirname $(gcc -print-libgcc-file-name)`/include &&
find ${GCC_INCLUDEDIR}/* -maxdepth 0 -xtype d -exec rm -rvf '{}' \; &&
rm -vf `grep -l "DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE" ${GCC_INCLUDEDIR}/*` &&


At this point, it is imperative to stop and ensure that the basic functions (compiling and linking) of the new toolchain are working as expected. To perform a sanity check, run the following commands:

echo 'main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /tools'

If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors, and the output of the last command will be of the form:

[Requesting program interpreter:

Note that /tools/lib appears as the prefix of the dynamic linker.

If the output is not shown as above or there was no output at all, then something is wrong. Investigate and retrace the steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. This issue must be resolved before continuing on. First, perform the sanity check again, using gcc instead of cc. If this works, then the /tools/bin/cc symlink is missing. Revisit Section 5.4, “GCC-4.1.2 - Pass 1,” and install the symlink. Next, ensure that the PATH is correct. This can be checked by running echo $PATH and verifying that /tools/bin is at the head of the list. If the PATH is wrong it could mean that you are not logged in as user lfs or that something went wrong back in Section 4.4, “Setting Up the Environment.” Another option is that something may have gone wrong with the specs file amendment above. In this case, redo the specs file amendment, being careful to copy-and-paste the commands.

Once all is well, clean up the test files:

rm -v dummy.c a.out


Building TCL in the next section will serve as an additional check that the toolchain has been built properly. If TCL fails to build, it is an indication that something has gone wrong with the Binutils, GCC, or Glibc installation, but not with TCL itself.